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the State could make needed to be made for the education of
the common people. That meant, of course, that the State
and not the Church should be the supreme authority in education;
but the opposition between the claims of Church and of State
was softened by the conviction, which found expression in
practically every serious educational writing of the time, that the
most important part of education is moral education. That view,
though sometimes given an anti-clerical bias, left open the
possibility of the co-operation of Church and State in the training
of the young on terms satisfactory to both.

Before proceeding to deal in detail with the predominant
ideas of the period immediately under consideration, it is necessary
to note the very great diversity of educational development in
different parts of Europe, corresponding to the diversity of national
conditions produced by the Napoleonic wars. In the centuries
before the Revolution, education had been much the same all over
Europe, the difference between one nation and another being
largely one of backwardness or forwardness. But during the
first half of the Nineteenth Century each nation followed a line
of thought and action of its own in virtual independence of its
neighbours. First, in order of time and of importance, came
Germany's great experiment in national education, which in
conjunction with the remarkable activity in educational theory,
associated with the names of Herbart and Froebel, made her the
educational leader of Europe. Next, about the third decade of the
century, appeared in France an interesting continuation of the
educational speculation of the previous century, which, among
results only of consequence for herself, had at least one outcome
of significance for the general progress of education in the work
of Seguin* Finally, at a still later time, the individualistic ideals
of England became articulate in very different ways in Thomas
Arnold and Herbert Spencer. These must all be considered if
we are to understand the education of our own times*


In 1806 the Prussians were utterly defeated by Napoleon
at Jena after a month's campaign, and their humiliation was
completed a year Jater by the terms of the Treaty of Tilsit